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Gen 2:21-25

Home > The Old Testament > Genesis > Genesis 1-11b > Chapter 2-3 / Verses 2:4-3:24
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Summary[edit]

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Relationship to Genesis 1-11b. Chapter 2-3 is the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The relationship of Chapter 2-3 to the rest of the Adam-Noah cycle is discussed at Genesis 1-11b.

Story. Genesis 2-3 consists of seven major sections:

  • Verses 2:4-17: Adam, placed in Garden, commanded not to eat tree of knowledge
  • Verses 2:18-25: Lord says not good to be alone, Eve, unaware naked
  • Verses 3:1-5: serpent induces Eve to transgress by eating fruit
  • Verses 3:6-7: Adam & Eve eat and discover nakedness
  • Verses 3:8-13: Where art thou? Adam & Eve admit eating fruit
  • Verses 3:14-21: Lord pronounces curses, ground cursed for man’s sake, coats
  • Verses 3:22-24: Adam and Eve know good from evil, driven from Garden, prevented from eating of tree of life

Message. Themes, symbols, and doctrinal points emphasized in Chapter 2-3 include:

Discussion[edit]

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  • Gen 2:4-5: Garden Translated from the Hebrew Gan--a garden enclosed by walls, such as in a courtyard or temple, separated off from the rest of the world.
  • Gen 2:8: Eden. The name "Eden" seems to connote "a well-watered place."
  • Gen 2:13: Ethiopia. The Hebrew word translated as "Ethiopia" in verse 13 is kush. In the context, the word more likely refers to a region of Mesopotamia rather than to the African country. Modern translations generally translate the word literally as "Cush."
  • Gen 2:18-19: Help meet. The Hebrew word translated as "help meet" in verses 18 and 20 is ezer, usually translated as "helper" in modern translations. Usually when ezer appears in the Old Testament, it refers to God or Jehovah as the help or helper, such as in Psalm 70:5.
  • Gen 2:22: Woman. The English word "woman" does not, in fact, have a meaning of one being taken out of man. See Etymology of Woman for a proper etymology.
  • Gen 2:23: Man. Prior to verse 23, the Hebrew word translated "man" has been "adam," from which Adam gets his name. As an adjective, "adam" means "ruddy." When not used as a name, the noun means "earth." In vese 23, however, the word used is "ish." Its meaning (other than "man") isn't certain, but it may mean something like "that which exists." When used to mean "man," "adam" refers to either an individual or to humans in general. The word "ish," however, refers to specific individuals rather than to men or humans in general. The Hebrew word translated "woman" is "isha." Obviously it sounds very much like "ish," the word for "man," just as the English "woman" sounds very much like "man." "Isha" may be a variation of "ish."
  • Verses 3:1: Subtile. The Hebrew word aruwm, translated as "subtil" in verse 1, in this context probably has meanings such as "sly," "crafty" or "cunning," all negative qualities. However, eight times in the book of Proverbs, such as in Proverbs 22:3, aruwm is translated as "prudent," a positive quality. Perhaps a good English equivalent of this word might be something such as "shrewd" or "highly aware" — a personal quality that can be used for good or evil. The use of this word suggests that the serpent was intelligent and knew exactly what he wanted to say.
  • Gen 3:15: Enmity. The word enmity means roughly hatred. Enmity here is translated from the Hebrew word eybah. In both Hebrew and English the word has the same root as enemy. Enmity is essentially the feeling one has for an enemy. Merriam-Webster's definition suggests that enmity is a positive, active, and typically mutual hatred or ill will.
The Lord puts enmity, or hatred, between the seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent. The seed of the woman refers to people. The serpent represents the devil. His seed could refer to those who followed him in the pre-mortal life. It also may refer to those who follow Satan in this life; as Alma 5:41 indicates, those who follow Satan in this life become his children.
Why would God put enmity between people and those who follow Satan? One reason may be that hatred of evil can serve as a barrier between us and evil (see also Amos 5:15). This reasoning may be similar to the reasoning the Lord gives for cursing the Lamanites (2 Ne 5:21-22). Nephi tells us that the point of that cursing was to make the Lamanites loathsome to the Nephites unless the Lamanites repented—this loathsome-ness served as a barrier. (Loathsome is less harsh then enmity; note though that we are also told that the Nephites hated the Lamanites because of their curse (Jacob 3:5).)
Verse 15 seems to suggest that this enmity will lead to conflict. Just after God says he will put enmity between the serpent and the woman, he follows by saying that the woman will bruise the head of the serpent and the serpent will bruise the heel of the woman's seed. This verse shouldn't be read though as condoning attacks on evil. Mormon tells us, rather, that it is through the wicked that the wicked are punished Morm 4:5. Further to attack evil is inconsistent with what Jesus's teaches. In Matt 5:39 he tells us not to resist evil. Similarly in Rom 12:21 Paul tells us not to be overcome by evil, but to overcome evil with good. Though God gave us enmity for evil, Jesus and Paul place restraints on how that enmity should be exercised. (See also Prov 20:22, Rom 12:9.)
  • Gen 3:15: It. The word translated as it is the Hebrew hu, a singular masculine pronoun that can also be translated as he, which is done in many modern translations as well as the Joseph Smith Translation (Moses 4:21). The argument for translating hu as it is that in Hebrew it grammatically agrees in number and gender with the word for offspring. Some translators have even translated hu in this context as they, since offspring refers to more than one person. Some early translations used by Catholics also have used the word she here, apparently based on some early Latin manuscripts that may have been erroneous.
  • Gen 3:15: Bruise head, bruise heel. Christianity has traditionally, at least as far back as Ireneaus, interpreted Genesis 3:15 messianically: Jesus, the offspring of Eve, would crush Satan on the head. Those advocating this view sometimes quote Paul, who uses similar language in Romans 16:20.
  • See discussion page about these "curses of the Fall".
  • Redeemer of the Fall. When Adam and Eve partook of the forbidden fruit, not only were they cut off or fell from the presence of the Lord, but their natures as well as all living things upon the earth also became “fallen.” In addition, Adam and Eve — and their posterity — were to suffer more consequences.
To Eve the Lord said, “I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception. In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children, and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.” To Adam, the Lord said, “… cursed shall be the ground for thy sake, in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. By the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread, until thou shalt return unto the ground, for thou shalt surely die …” [Moses 4:22-23].
Jesus Christ was foreordained to remedy the effects of the Fall and to bring mankind back into the presence of the Lord. He likewise had to suffer the effects of the Fall. As we look at each “curse” in relation to mankind and Jesus Christ, we can more fully understand the aspects of His atoning sacrifice.
  • Gen 3:17-19: Thorns and thistles. The curse of thorns and thistles is obvious to mankind. But as many physical things can teach us spiritual truths, we should also look at this curse with spiritual eyes. In his epistle to the Hebrews, Paul stated, “But that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned. But, beloved, we are persuaded better things of you …”[Hebrews 6:8-9].
In Isaiah 10:17 we read, “And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame; and it shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day.”
In these verses, thorns and briars refer to wickedness, not plants. On a spiritual level, we can see the effects of the fall in ourselves as the brother of Jared so succinctly said, “… because of the fall, our natures have become evil continually” [Ether 3:2] — and as King Benjamin stated, “an enemy to God” [Mosiah 3:19]. Instead of naturally “bearing the good fruits” of kindness, patience, forgiveness, and so on, our natural tendencies are “thorns and briars” of pride, selfishness, envy, and other forms of wickedness that if left unchecked, will crowd out the spiritual good fruit. [see parable of the sower, Matthew 13:22]
When we come to a realization of our carnal or fallen nature, we can plead as King Benjamin’s people for the application of the atoning blood of Christ [Mosiah 4:2] and pray that we can have “this wicked spirit rooted out of our breast” [Alma 22:15] — not only to receive a remission of our sins, but to become “born again” and become new creatures in Christ [2 Corinthians 5:17]. It is only through the atonement of Jesus Christ that the natural man can be overcome. Not only did Christ pay for the “briars and thorns” of our fallen nature in Gethsemane, He was also “wounded for our transgressions” [Isaiah 53:5] with a literal crown of thorns and pierced to the cross with “thorns” of iron. He bore the symbols of the Fall that He has paid the price for.
  • Gen 3:15: By sweat of brow we earn our bread. Adam was told that by the sweat of his face, he would eat his daily bread. We know that for most of us, long hours and hard work are required to make a living. On a spiritual level, since we are cut off from the presence of the Lord, it requires hard work to earn our spiritual bread. Jesus said, “Labor not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you.” [John 6:29] Jesus Christ offers us “living bread” if we will come unto Him, for He is the Bread of Life [John 6:33]. Yet it takes effort to obtain the word of the Lord. In the scriptures we read of those who “wrestled in mighty prayer before the Lord’ [Enos 1:2], who fasted and prayed many days to know certain truths [Alma 5:46]. The scriptures clearly indicate that we must nourish our faith with great diligence and good works.
Christ’s work of bringing to pass the immortality and eternal life of man [Moses 1:3] also required intense labor. He has declared that He has “suffered the will of the Father in all things from the beginning.” [3 Nephi 11:11] We read in Doctrine and Covenants 19:18-19, “Which suffering caused myself, even God, the greatest of all, to tremble because of pain, and to bleed at every pore, and to suffer both body and spirit — and would that I might not drink the bitter cup and shrink — nevertheless, glory be to the Father, and I partook and finished my preparations unto the children of men.” Christ “sweat as it were great drops of blood” [Luke 22:55] as He bore the sins of mankind, another symbol of this curse of the Fall.
  • Gen 3:16: Sorrow in Bringing Forth Children. The Lord told Eve, “I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception. In sorrow shalt thou bring forth children.” Because of their fallen nature, children do not always grow up obedient, full of patience and willing to serve one another. Parents often experience much sorrow in child- rearing.
Jesus Christ, in order for mankind to become His spiritually begotten sons and daughters, also experienced great sorrow in the conception and bringing forth of His children. In Matthew 26:36-38 we read, “Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane … and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. Then saith he unto them, ‘My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death.’” In His sufferings in our behalf, He became the great “Deliverer” and “Father” as He paid the price or “delivered” us from sin. As we partake of the Atonement in our lives, we become His spiritually begotten children. After King Benjamin’s people experienced the cleansing power of the atonement in their lives, they entered into a covenant to be obedient to the will and commandments of the Lord. Because of that experience and the covenant, they were called “the children of Christ, his sons and his daughters; for behold, this day he hath spiritually begotten you; for ye say that your hearts are changed through faith on his name; therefore ye are born of him and have become his sons and his daughters.“ [Mosiah 5:6-7]
Abinadi also testified, “… that when his soul has been made a offering for sin, he shall see his seed … for these are they whose sins he has borne; these are they for whom he has died, to redeem them from their transgressions. And now, are they not his seed?” [Mosiah 15:10 & 12] Isaiah said, “He shall see the travail of his soul, and be satisfied” [Isaiah 53:11, emphasis added].
  • Gen 3:16: Wives Subject to husbands. Because Eve yielded unto temptation in the Garden, she was told, “And thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.” Throughout the ages, women have been oppressed and mistreated because of unrighteous dominion. However, Jesus Christ has instructed His prophets to teach the people the proper order of marriage. Paul counseled, “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it … So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself [Ephesians 5:25, 28]. Our latter-day prophets have likewise counseled husbands to love and respect their wives.
Paul used the analogy of the relationship of Christ to the church as husbands to wives. In one way, we can view Adam as a type of Christ and Eve as representative of mankind. It was Eve who succumbed to temptation and was doomed to the Fall, or spiritual death in being cut off from the presence of God. Adam had a choice and he partook that “man might be” (2 Nephi 9:25). Likewise Jesus Christ did not yield to temptation, but “partook that I might finish my preparations unto the children of men” (Doc. & Cov. 19:19). Eve (or all mankind) in order to be redeemed from the effects of the “fall,” needed to covenant to yield her will to her husband, Adam, which is a type of Christ.
The scriptures use the imagery of a marriage covenant with Christ being the bridegoom and the church as the bride [Revelations 19, Doctrine & Covenants 33:17, 65:3, 133:19]. Hosea teaches us of this covenant relationship with the Lord. He also shows that we, the covenant bride, have played the “harlot” and have gone after other lovers, breaking that covenant relationship. When we come to a realization that these other lovers do not bring us happiness, then we shall say, “I will go and return to my first husband; for then was it better with me than now” [Hosea 2:7].
When we return to Christ, the faithful husband, He promises, “I will betroth thee unto me forever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in loving kindness, and in mercies. I will betroth thee unto me in faithfulness; and thou shalt know the Lord.” [Hosea 2:14, 19 “And it shall be at that day, saith the Lord, that thou shalt call me Ishi (which means husband); and shalt call me no more Baali (which means master) [vs. 16].”
  • Death. Adam and Eve were told, “For thou shalt surely die” as a result from partaking of the forbidden fruit. Spiritual and physical death was a result of the Fall. Adam and Eve and all mankind, because of the Fall and our sinful natures, are cut off from the presence of God — hence the first spiritual death. Jesus Christ suffered spiritual death when he vicariously became unclean when he took upon himself the sins of the world. It was the first time he had experienced the separation from the Father and he exclaimed, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” (Matthew 27:46).
And as “In Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (1st Corinthians 15:22), all mankind suffer physical death. Christ also suffered physical death. He overcame both physical and spiritual death through the resurrection and the atonement in order to open the way for each one of us to be resurrected and redeemed from our sinful nature and to be brought back into the presence of the Father.
In this “fallen” world, mankind was put in a position of spiritual and physical death. Because Jesus Christ chose to be our Savior, He took upon Himself the effects of the Fall and overcame them. He took upon Himself our sicknesses, pains, infirmities, and our sins so that He would know how to truly succor us and blot out our transgressions according to the power of his deliverance (Alma 7:11-13). Truly “there is no other name given nor any other way nor means whereby salvation can come unto the children of men, only in and through the name of Christ, the Lord Omnipotent” [Mosiah 3:17].
  • Gen 3:17-19, 23: Tilling the ground as governing or stewardship. Upon creating Adam and Eve, God gave them dominion over all animals (Gen 1:26-28) and gave them plants and animals for food. (Gen 1:29-31). Dominion over the food chain can be exercised in either of two ways. Dominion can be exercised as a predator, or as a hunter gatherer, by raiding available food sources and then perhaps moving on. Alternatively, dominion can be exercised as an agriculturalist, or as a farmer or herder, by raising and caring for a stable food supply. Adam was placed in the Garden of Eden to dress and keep it. (Gen 2:15). Upon being driven from the Garden, Adam was told to till the ground and to earn his bread by the sweat of his face. (Gen 3:19, 23). Adam was thus instructed to exercise dominion over his food supply as an agriculturalist who raises and cares for his food supply. In other words, Adam was instructed to govern his food supply rather than simply predating upon it.
The first city mentioned in the Bible is wicked Babel. (Gen 11:4-5). But in the Joseph Smith Translation, the first city mentioned is the City of Enoch, which is portrayed as the ideal human society. (Moses 7:19, 63, 68-69). Cities are large population centers with formal power structures that can only exist when mankind effectively governs not only the food chain but also mankind itself. The informal chieftain of a band of nomadic raiders exercises dominion like a hunter gatherer or a predator, moving into an area, taking what is available, and then moving on. The king of a city or a state must exercise dominion like an agriculturalist or a governor, caring for his subjects in order to draw sustainably upon a stable tax base. God is frequently described as a king with a throne (D&C 76:92-93; Rev 4:1-3), and his creations and habitation are often described as kingdoms. (D&C 88:36-39; 1 Ne 15:33-35). God does in fact nurture and care for his subjects in order to take glory to himself (Moses 1:39). And the ideal society in all of human history was a city, a mode of living that requires competent governance.
Within this context, the statement that Adam was to till the ground, and thus learn to govern his food supply rather than merely predating upon it, is not a punishment. To the contrary, it is an important lesson for children of the Eternal King who seek to become like him (Matt 5:48; discussion here) and who seek, as wise stewards over a few things (Matt 24:45-47; 25:21), to inherit thrones, kingdoms, principalities, powers, and dominions (D&C 132:19; also see D&C 121:46), all of which must be governed rather than predated upon.

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Prompts for further study[edit]

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  • Gen 2:5: The creation story in Genesis 1 is clearly different from that in Genesis 2. For example, in chapter 1, the creation takes six days, in this chapter it takes one (verse 4); in 1 the earth begins as a mass of water, but in 2 the land is already there (verse 5-6); in 1 the two sexes are created at the same time, but in 2 male is created before female; in 1 the plants are created on the third day--before the creation of humans--but in 2 man is created before the plants (verses 7 and 9); and in 1 the living creatures were created before humans, but in 2 they are created afterwards (verse 19). How do we account for these differences? Why is each account important to us? What does each teach that the other does not?
  • Gen 2:7: Is verse 7 purely symbolic? Was Adam also a literal son of God, but not born in the flesh (or in other words mortality)? (See the genealogy of Christ in Luke 3:38, Paul's discussion of the two Adams (or two gods) in Romans 5 and 1 Corinthians 15 especially verses 45-50.)
  • This verse is related to a lot of our religions language. For example, inspire means "to breath into," and spirit means, literally, "breath." What is the point of this language? In other words, what does it teach us? (As you think about this question, consider John 3:8.)
  • Gen 2:8: What typological significance might the Garden of Eden have?
  • Gen 2:9: The tree of life is an important symbol in the Book of Mormon. Why do Book of Mormon writers dwell on the tree of life and not on both the tree of life and the tree of knowledge?
  • Gen 2:9: What does the word "knowledge" mean if we are talking about knowing good and evil?
  • Gen 2:11-14: Obviously is it important that Eden is the source of much water. What kinds of things are associated with water? What kinds of things might that suggest?
  • Gen 2:15: What does it mean to dress the garden? What does it mean to keep it? One translator says that Adam's job was "to serve and to guard." What do you think of that translation? What does Adam's job in the Garden mean to us? Do we have any similar job?
  • Gen 2:16-17: How do you explain this commandment in light of the fact that it was necessary for Adam and Eve to eat the fruit of the tree? How can God forbid what must be? Do you read "you shall die" as a threat of punishment? Or is it a way of making the choice between the two trees mutually exclusive?
  • Gen 2:17: Could the Father be "responsible" for mortality? Immortality? Or did his two literal or figurative sons have to bear the weight of this responsibility?
  • Gen 2:17: Why did it take one (Michael/Adam) to create the conditions of mortality and another (Christ) to create immortality? Was there no other way to accomplish this?
  • Gen 2:17: According to this story, where did Adam live before he was placed in the garden? Why don't we know more about humans before they enter the garden?
  • Gen 2:17: How does a correct understanding of the Fall change our views of the Atonement? Which event was more essential, or could one exist with out the other?
  • Gen 2:18: Why is it not good for man to be alone? Aside from the things we bring to this story because we know the doctrine, are there things suggested by the Bible itself?
  • Gen 2:18: Notice that the Adam is promised "an help meet" rather than "an helpmeet"--two words rather than one. "Meet" means appropriate. What kind of helper would be appropriate to Adam? What kind of help does Adam need at this point in the story? Later?
  • Gen 2:19: What is the significance of Adam naming the animals?
  • Gen 2:19-20: In this version of the story, Verse 18 prepares us for the woman's creation and verse 21 tells us of that creation, but these two verses break up the story of her creation. Why? What do they have to do with the creation of the woman?
  • Gen 2:20: Does the end of this verse help us understand what verses 19 and 20 have to do with the creation of Eve? What happened to Adam as he named the animals; what did he discover?
  • Gen 2:23: Does this verse help us understand what the story of Eve's creation teaches us? Given the important role naming has played in this story, is there anything significant about the fact that Adam names Eve? If so, what?
  • Gen 2:24: Who is speaking in this verse, Adam or the writer? What does it mean to leave father and mother? What does it imply? What does it mean to cleave to a person? What does it mean to be one flesh?
  • Gen 2:25: What things might the couple's nakedness signify? Why should they be ashamed? What is the purpose of this verse?
  • Gen 3:7: Were both (or all four rather) of their eyes opened at the same time? Did Adam and Eve eat the fruit at the same time? Why the need to clothe themselves?
  • Gen 3:14: What does it mean for the serpent to be "cursed above all cattle"?
  • Gen 3:14: What does it mean for the serpent to eat dust? Is there a difference here between God who creates Adam from the dust, and the serpent, who is forced to eat dust but creates nothing? Or a difference between the serpent eating dust and Adam who comes from dust, and returns to dust? Man is created from dust after the mist comes up and makes the dust into clay--does this verse indicate that the serpent is forced to live in a pre-clay (mortal) state of dust?
  • Gen 3:17: Cursed is the ground for your sake. Why is a curse given for Adam's sake? How does a curse over the earth (or the ground, rather) benefit Adam?
  • Gen 3:22: Was there death on this earth prior to Adam partaking of the fruit (before answering see Bible Dictionary entry for the fall)?
  • Gen 3:22: If there was no death previously, how does this fit into popular views of theological evolution, evolution or other controversial issues? Can current views of science be reconciled with the creation account, or is this simply a matter of faith?
  • Gen 3:22: Is the death referred to in verse 22, a spiritual or physical death? Or both?
  • Gen 3:22: How do we find our way to our own "tree?" Can we partake (of the atonement) and live forever after we overcome our sins?
  • Gen 3:22: Did Adam feel guilt for this transgression (See 2 Nephi 2)? What is the role of guilt?

Resources[edit]

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  • James Faulconer's exegesis about some aspects of community from Genesis 2 and 3.
  • Gen 3:14-21: In the Fall 1991 General Women's Meeting, Gordon B. Hinckley (then the first counselor in the First Presidency) said that it is to wrong use verse 16 to justify abuse of women by their husbands (Ensign magazine, November 1991, page 97). He went on to say: "My own interpretation of that sentence is that the husband shall have a governing responsibility to provide for, to protect, to strengthen and shield the wife. Any man who belittles or abuses or terrorizes, or who rules in unrighteousness, will deserve and, I believe, receive the reprimand of a just God who is the Eternal Father of both His sons and daughters."

Notes[edit]

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1 Cor 11:11-15

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Summary[edit]

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IV. Regulation of Meetings (Chapter 11)
• Topic 6: "Now I praise you, brethren, that ye ... keep the ordinances as I delivered them unto you ..." (11:2)

• head coverings to be worn by women when praying and prophesying (11:1-16)

• Topic 7: "When ye come together in the church, I hear that there be divisions among you ..." (11:18)

• Last Supper is to be partaken worthily and not as a meal (11:17-34)

Discussion[edit]

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  • 1 Cor 11: Paul and Women. Some have characterized Paul as a chauvinist or even a misogynist (a hater of women) because of statements he makes in this chapter as well as 1 Cor 14. Here are a few points to keep in mind when seeking to understand these chapters in a broader context.
1. Paul belonged to a culture that was more patriarchal than our own. Although the LDS church also has a hierarchal order within the priesthood, a century and a half of feminist progress has made our current culture far more sensitive to issues of equal rights. Paul on the other hand, had been trained in the Jewish Rabbinical order, which emphasized the submission and inequality of women to men. When Paul speaks of the subservience of women, we must remember the society he lived in.
2. Paul’s writings about women are inconsistent. For example, in verse 5 of this chapter, he speaks of women prophesying. This seems to contradict statements he makes in 1 Cor 14:34 about women keeping silence in the churches.
3. Paul speaks frequently with great love and respect for certain women actively working in the ministry. Women seemed to play a very active role in some of the missionary efforts in which Paul was involved. Romans 16:1-4 mentions three women, Phoebe, Priscilla, and Aquilla, whom he describes as “fellow workers in Christ” and “servants in the church.” This seems to indicate that women had an important role in the early church, both as sister missionaries, and in a ministry perhaps similar to our Relief Society.
  • 1 Cor 11:4-5. It was the practice in Greece (and Corinth) for men to worship God uncovered, whereas Jews, both ancient and modern, cover their head during their worship. Paul’s statements with regards to this practice are purely cultural, and perhaps only applied to customs unique to the Corinthians. Paul understood the importance of regional cultural practices, and advises the Saints to adhere to them, rather than stirring things up in ways that might be offensive to some. It is also interesting to note that most women in the Middle East still veil their heads in the presence of men.
  • 1 Cor 11:8-9. Paul uses an argument from the story of the Garden of Eden in Gen 2:23 to make his point. Eve was taken from Adam's rib, not the other way around. In verse 9, Paul alludes to the LDS idea that the Eve's purpose was to help Adam. Interestingly, this idea is not found in Genesis, neither is it found in Abraham or Moses.
  • 1 Cor 11:11-12. Paul delivers what seems to be a clarification of his previous statements about the place of women in the church. Perhaps Paul understood that his comments might lead to unrightious dominion. Therefore, he reminds the Saints of the equality of men and women before God: "Neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman withoug the man...for as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman." Some commentators who wish to emphasize Paul's chauvanistic beliefs cite verses 8 and 9, but leave out Paul's clarifications in verses 11 and 12.
Elsewhere, in Gal 3:28 Paul says "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus." Paul understood that men and women are equal before God, inspite of the different roles they have been given.
  • 1 Cor 11:16. Scholars disagree on the exact meaning of this scripture. Some believe that Paul is saying "we have no custom to be contentious." Others believe "custom" refers to women veiling their heads and that Paul insists upon this custom even in the face of contention. [1]
However, given the fact that Paul had just addressed the custom of eating of meat offered unto idols in a conciliatory, non-confrontational tone, it is possible Paul was trying to say "we should not enforce our views of this custom upon people who are contentious about it. It is more important to keep peace and harmony in the church, than it is to enforce non-essential customs upon people."
  • 1 Cor 11:17. Paul passes on to a new subject, prefacing it with a strong rebuke. He suggests that their congregational meetings leave them worse off, not better. Unlike his other admonitions which gave due praise for the Corinthian's efforts on a particular issue, with regards to this issue, Paul says "I praise you not."
  • 1 Cor 11:21-22. It was the Corinthian's custom to gather together to eat a meal as part of their sacramental ritual, as Jesus and his apostles did at the feast of the Passover. Most likely members were bringing their own food and eating it in front of others who were poor or had brought none to eat. Perhaps the pot-luck dinner had not yet been invented. Paul sharply condemns their shameless behavior in front of those that "have not" and goes on to remind them of the true spirit of the sacrament.
  • 1 Cor 11:27. It is common to misinterpret "unworthily" in this scripture. When taken out of context, "unworthy" could mean any type of sinful activity, and suggest that being a sinner makes a person unworthy of partaking of the sacrament. However, Paul in this case was referring to the disrespect and irreverence demonstrated by the Corinthians as they partook of the sacrament together. (See verses 21- 22) Paul is admonishing the Saints to administer this ordinance in a reverent and appropriate way, otherwise they are as guilty as those who crucified the Lord.
There are other places in the scriptures, such as 3 Ne 18:29 and Morm 9:28 that suggest that there should be a baseline of "worthiness" in order to partake of the sacrament. Current LDS policy states that members who have committed serious sins, or who are excommunicated or disfellowshiped are unworthy to partake of the sacrament. We also have a famous anecdote about President Kimball forgoing the sacrament after being distracted from reverent contemplation by the singing of the birds outside the window. Some Saints may choose not to partake because they don't feel they have achieved the proper frame of mind. Paul would have agreed on these points, but his actual meaning is different in this particular case.
It is also important to recognize that in a certain sense, we are all unworthy before God, and that partaking of the sacrament is an important part of receiving a remission of our sins and becoming worthy. We need not be perfect in order to partake of the sacrament. We only need be penitent and humble. God promises all those who come unto Him will be forgiven, and we can expect to receive that forgiveness each week at the sacrament table, as we come with a broken heart and a contrite spirit.
It is important to meet a "level" of personal righteousness when partaking of the sacrament, but also the importance of HOW we partake of it.
  • 1 Cor 11:28. By "examine" Paul means to enter the proper frame of mind, examine our belief in Christ, engage in self-introspection, and partake in a reverent and contemplative manner.
  • 1 Cor 11:29. The word "damnation" should more accurately be translated "judgement" or "condemnation." This softens the meaning considerably, as the word "damnation" denotes an eternal state of being, and "condemnation" denotes what may only be temporary. The mistranslation of scripture is of particular importance to various Protestant commentators who see the scripture as discouraging members from partaking in weekly communion when they should be.
In the case of the LDS church, those who deem themselves "unworthy" to partake of the sacrament often skip church all together so as not to be embarrassed being seen not partaking. If we notice those among our flock who do not partake of the sacrament, we should be careful not to judge them, but rather embrace them as friends and fellow Saints. Their decision not to partake amounts to a public confession of unworthiness and as such, it requires great courage and desire to change. These Saints should be admired for their integrity and their determination to continue to come to church in spite of not being able to fully participate. There are many others who choose to partake unworthily, rather than risk embarrassment in front of fellow members.
  • 1 Cor 11:31-32. By "judge ourselves" Paul repeats the idea he gave in verse 28 in different words: As we partake of the sacrament, we should judge, or examine ourselves, and if we do, we will escape the judgement of God. However, Paul then says that being judged by God is not necessarily a bad thing (verse 29), for if God judges and chastens us today, we will not be condemned with the world at the last day.
Paul's views on self-judgement here offer a counterpoint to a previous argument he made on the frailty of human judgement in 1 Cor 4:3. The apparent contradiction arises from the fact that in this scripture, Paul speaks of judgement exclusively associated with partaking the sacrament, whereas 1 Cor 4 speaks of judgement we pass on ourselves and others in daily life, which is bound to be faulty, self-serving, or biased. Perhaps the sacrament offers us the best possible circumstances to judge ourselves in righteousness, if we truly understand what the symbols of the sacrament mean.

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  • 1 Cor 11:10: Power on her head. Summarizing M. D. Hooker’s 1964 article in New Testament Studies titled “Authority on Her Head: An Examination of 1 Cor 11:10”, Julie M. Smith suggests on this T&S blog thread that a woman covering her head when praying or prophesying (v. 5) symbolizes suspension of the authority man is given over the woman, signifying the direct access Eve is given to God in these acts (see here for follow-up discussion at the Spinozist Mormon blog):
"When the woman chooses to veil, she is choosing to exercise power or control over her head--physical and metaphorical. In the context of praying or prophesying, a veiled woman is one in a direct relationship with God--man is no longer her head. Further, remember that the veiling is not done all the time, but only while engaging in prayer or prophecy. This is important: it points out that, particularly while in that relationship, the woman has direct access to God and, as her physical head is covered, so her metaphorical head (i.e., man) is covered or denied."
  • 1 Cor 11:31: Judging ourselves. See this post for discussion about God judging us vs. judging ourselves. In particular, note BrianJ's comment #20 which sketches one way to read this verse.

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves, such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word. In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources are preferable to footnotes.




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D&C 131:1-5

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  • D&C 131:1-4. These verses are often cited in General conference addresses. These verses are often cited within the context of teaching that a men and women cannot be exalted alone--each needs the other. As Elder Nelson put it in a November 1989 address "Men and women receive the highest ordinance in the house of the Lord together and equally, or not at all." To see other citations look at theLDS General Conference Scriptural Index.
  • D&C 131:4. Verse 3 tells us that one who does not enter into "this order of the priesthood [meaning the new and everlasting covenant of marriage]" cannot obtain the highest heaven or degree of the celestial glory. Here in verse 4 we read that such a person "may enter into the other" two heavens or degrees, "but that is the end of his kingdom, he cannot have an increase." This last statement may seem to support the view that once assigned to a degree one cannot move to another. In fact, this verse works well under both views; it doesn't support one view or the other.
If one believes that one cannot move to a higher degree once assigned to a lower degree, then to say that a person "may enter into the other" is to give them a fixed position. Under this reading for a person assigned to a lower kingdom, the phrase "he cannot have an increase" supports their already held view that such an assignment is permanently fixed.
On the other hand, if one believes that one may be able to move to a higher degree once assigned to a lower degree, then the phrase "he cannot have an increase" is read within the context of a person who does not enter into this order of the priesthood. Or in other words, verse 4 mainly becomes a restatement of verse 3, which itself is a restatement of verse 2. In that case all three verses say thee same thing: someone who doesn't enter into the order of the priesthood cannot obtain the highest degree in the celestial glory. In that case, these verses don't comment on whether or when there will be an opportunity later to enter into this covenant and progress to the highest degree.
  • D&C 131:5. The phrase "through the power of the Holy Priesthood" has reference to certain priesthood ordinances performed in the temple as promised to those who are true and faithful to the covenants entered into in the endowment.

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  • D&C 131:4. What does it mean to say that someone in the Celestial Kingdom "cannot have an increase"? Does this mean that they do not progress eternally? How might this be related to the ability to have eternal posterity?

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Previous editions.

  • The oldest surviving copy of D&C 131 is __.
  • D&C 131 was first published in __.
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Related passages that interpret or shed light on D&C 131.

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Historical references cited on this page.

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Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.



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D&C 132:1-5

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  • D&C 132:11: Before the world was. This exact phrase occurs 9 times in LDS scripture, according to an lds.org search. Of particular interest are the following: (1) In D&C 76:13 "the things of God" existed "before the world was." These things are what the Spirit reveals by opening the eyes of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. These things are also things that "were ordained of the the Father, through his only Begotten Son, who was in the Bosom of the Father, even from the beginning." (2) In D&C 93:7, John's testimony from John 1 is elaborated upon with the description of Jesus Christ existing, as the word, "before the world was. (3) In D&C 128:22, the redemption of the dead from prison, by baptism for the dead, is described as being ordained "before the world was." These phrases suggest a rhetorical connection between the sealing power of God's word and/or law (cf. verse 12) and the purpose of what is typically called the pre-mortal plan of salvation whereby Christ would redeem mankind. What seems somewhat incongruent is that this fore-sightful plan was established to redeem mankind from a fall that had not yet occurred. That is, God's word, in the form of a commandment, seems to be what first effected the Fall, through Adam and, subsequently, what effect-ed/s redemption, through Christ. This "before the world was" phrasing seems to set up a kind of temporal tension with the "new" aspect of the covenant that is being revealed. That is, if the law existed "before the world was," in what sense is it new?
  • D&C 132:11-12. These two verses return to a theme that comes up in the first verses of this revelation: that law is somehow connected with what happened before the world was (though covenant is never explicitly stated to be pre-mortal). In verse 11, the Lord asks a rhetorical question, which seems to suggest that the reader of the revelation (or the hearer: Joseph Smith) should recognize the logical answer: the Lord would not do such a thing as appoint something except by law, and that as ordained before the world was.
But whatever this implies is then clarified, or at least qualified: the law is "by me [Christ] or by my word." The weight of this phrase perhaps goes too easily unfelt. What is at work in this curious little phrase?
  • D&C 132:13: Thrown down. The phrase "throw down" or "thrown down" occurs 29 times in LDS scripture, according to an lds.org search. The context is usually in terms of throwing down the altars of false or rival gods. One way to read this might verse, esp. in light of God's word being mentioned, is in terms of humbling oneself, or allowing oneself to be humbled "because of the word" (Alma 32:14), as opposed to being forced to be humble. Also, the typical "thrown down" context of false altars seems a rich allusion to the marriage altar in the temple where couples enter into a new and everlasting covenant with God.

Unanswered questions[edit]

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Prompts for life application[edit]

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Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:1. Does the "as also" of verse 1 suggest that Joseph only inquired concerning Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and that the Lord is including, for His own purposes, some information on Moses, David, and Solomon? If so, what is the significance of this? If not, why does the Lord break down the list into two groups, split by the "as also"?
  • D&C 132:2. Why would the Lord begin his answer—even before He announces that He is going to answer—with the phrase "Behold, and lo, I am the Lord thy God"?
  • D&C 132:4-5. Verses 4-5 seem, perhaps, to use "covenant" and "law" interchangeably. Is this a good reading? Is there any way to read them as separate or distinct here? What would it mean to "abide" either the covenant or the law? Is it significant that verse 5 makes law a question of receiving a blessing, while no such connection is made with the covenant? Might one read "conditions" as making a difference between covenant and law?
  • D&C 132:6. In verse 6, both "law" and "covenant" are used, but perhaps in a way that is somewhat different from the preceding verses. Are they being used interchangeably here? Might one read the grammar here as suggesting that the law pertains to the new and everlasting covenant? If verse 5 speaks of laws being instituted, is it significant here that the covenant "was instituted"? Could there be several sense of the word "covenant" at play here and elsewhere?
  • D&C 132:7. Verse 7 also speaks of both "law" and "covenants." Here, however, it is quite clear that there is some kind of difference between them, since "covenants" are to be made, entered into, and sealed, in order to fulfill "the conditions of this law." What kind of distinction seems to be implicit here, then, between law and covenant? Can the distinction implied here be read back into the preceding four verses (3-6)? Does the list offered here ("covenants, contracts, bonds, etc.") help one think about the nature of covenant over against law? How are law and covenant related through the idea (or ordinance) of sealing?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




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D&C 132:6-10

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Summary[edit]

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Discussion[edit]

This section is for detailed discussion such as the meaning of a symbol, how a doctrinal point is developed throughout a passage, or insights that can be further developed in the future. Contributions may range from polished paragraphs down to a single bullet point. The focus, however, should always be on understanding the scriptural text consistent with LDS doctrine. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:11: Before the world was. This exact phrase occurs 9 times in LDS scripture, according to an lds.org search. Of particular interest are the following: (1) In D&C 76:13 "the things of God" existed "before the world was." These things are what the Spirit reveals by opening the eyes of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. These things are also things that "were ordained of the the Father, through his only Begotten Son, who was in the Bosom of the Father, even from the beginning." (2) In D&C 93:7, John's testimony from John 1 is elaborated upon with the description of Jesus Christ existing, as the word, "before the world was. (3) In D&C 128:22, the redemption of the dead from prison, by baptism for the dead, is described as being ordained "before the world was." These phrases suggest a rhetorical connection between the sealing power of God's word and/or law (cf. verse 12) and the purpose of what is typically called the pre-mortal plan of salvation whereby Christ would redeem mankind. What seems somewhat incongruent is that this fore-sightful plan was established to redeem mankind from a fall that had not yet occurred. That is, God's word, in the form of a commandment, seems to be what first effected the Fall, through Adam and, subsequently, what effect-ed/s redemption, through Christ. This "before the world was" phrasing seems to set up a kind of temporal tension with the "new" aspect of the covenant that is being revealed. That is, if the law existed "before the world was," in what sense is it new?
  • D&C 132:11-12. These two verses return to a theme that comes up in the first verses of this revelation: that law is somehow connected with what happened before the world was (though covenant is never explicitly stated to be pre-mortal). In verse 11, the Lord asks a rhetorical question, which seems to suggest that the reader of the revelation (or the hearer: Joseph Smith) should recognize the logical answer: the Lord would not do such a thing as appoint something except by law, and that as ordained before the world was.
But whatever this implies is then clarified, or at least qualified: the law is "by me [Christ] or by my word." The weight of this phrase perhaps goes too easily unfelt. What is at work in this curious little phrase?
  • D&C 132:13: Thrown down. The phrase "throw down" or "thrown down" occurs 29 times in LDS scripture, according to an lds.org search. The context is usually in terms of throwing down the altars of false or rival gods. One way to read this might verse, esp. in light of God's word being mentioned, is in terms of humbling oneself, or allowing oneself to be humbled "because of the word" (Alma 32:14), as opposed to being forced to be humble. Also, the typical "thrown down" context of false altars seems a rich allusion to the marriage altar in the temple where couples enter into a new and everlasting covenant with God.

Unanswered questions[edit]

This section is for questions along the lines of "I still don't understand ..." Please do not be shy. The point of these questions is to identify things that still need to be addressed on this page. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for life application[edit]

This section is for prompts that suggest ways in which a passage can influence a person's life. Prompts may be appropriate either for private self reflection or for a class discussion. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:1. Does the "as also" of verse 1 suggest that Joseph only inquired concerning Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and that the Lord is including, for His own purposes, some information on Moses, David, and Solomon? If so, what is the significance of this? If not, why does the Lord break down the list into two groups, split by the "as also"?
  • D&C 132:2. Why would the Lord begin his answer—even before He announces that He is going to answer—with the phrase "Behold, and lo, I am the Lord thy God"?
  • D&C 132:4-5. Verses 4-5 seem, perhaps, to use "covenant" and "law" interchangeably. Is this a good reading? Is there any way to read them as separate or distinct here? What would it mean to "abide" either the covenant or the law? Is it significant that verse 5 makes law a question of receiving a blessing, while no such connection is made with the covenant? Might one read "conditions" as making a difference between covenant and law?
  • D&C 132:6. In verse 6, both "law" and "covenant" are used, but perhaps in a way that is somewhat different from the preceding verses. Are they being used interchangeably here? Might one read the grammar here as suggesting that the law pertains to the new and everlasting covenant? If verse 5 speaks of laws being instituted, is it significant here that the covenant "was instituted"? Could there be several sense of the word "covenant" at play here and elsewhere?
  • D&C 132:7. Verse 7 also speaks of both "law" and "covenants." Here, however, it is quite clear that there is some kind of difference between them, since "covenants" are to be made, entered into, and sealed, in order to fulfill "the conditions of this law." What kind of distinction seems to be implicit here, then, between law and covenant? Can the distinction implied here be read back into the preceding four verses (3-6)? Does the list offered here ("covenants, contracts, bonds, etc.") help one think about the nature of covenant over against law? How are law and covenant related through the idea (or ordinance) of sealing?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




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D&C 132:11-15

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Summary[edit]

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Discussion[edit]

This section is for detailed discussion such as the meaning of a symbol, how a doctrinal point is developed throughout a passage, or insights that can be further developed in the future. Contributions may range from polished paragraphs down to a single bullet point. The focus, however, should always be on understanding the scriptural text consistent with LDS doctrine. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:11: Before the world was. This exact phrase occurs 9 times in LDS scripture, according to an lds.org search. Of particular interest are the following: (1) In D&C 76:13 "the things of God" existed "before the world was." These things are what the Spirit reveals by opening the eyes of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. These things are also things that "were ordained of the the Father, through his only Begotten Son, who was in the Bosom of the Father, even from the beginning." (2) In D&C 93:7, John's testimony from John 1 is elaborated upon with the description of Jesus Christ existing, as the word, "before the world was. (3) In D&C 128:22, the redemption of the dead from prison, by baptism for the dead, is described as being ordained "before the world was." These phrases suggest a rhetorical connection between the sealing power of God's word and/or law (cf. verse 12) and the purpose of what is typically called the pre-mortal plan of salvation whereby Christ would redeem mankind. What seems somewhat incongruent is that this fore-sightful plan was established to redeem mankind from a fall that had not yet occurred. That is, God's word, in the form of a commandment, seems to be what first effected the Fall, through Adam and, subsequently, what effect-ed/s redemption, through Christ. This "before the world was" phrasing seems to set up a kind of temporal tension with the "new" aspect of the covenant that is being revealed. That is, if the law existed "before the world was," in what sense is it new?
  • D&C 132:11-12. These two verses return to a theme that comes up in the first verses of this revelation: that law is somehow connected with what happened before the world was (though covenant is never explicitly stated to be pre-mortal). In verse 11, the Lord asks a rhetorical question, which seems to suggest that the reader of the revelation (or the hearer: Joseph Smith) should recognize the logical answer: the Lord would not do such a thing as appoint something except by law, and that as ordained before the world was.
But whatever this implies is then clarified, or at least qualified: the law is "by me [Christ] or by my word." The weight of this phrase perhaps goes too easily unfelt. What is at work in this curious little phrase?
  • D&C 132:13: Thrown down. The phrase "throw down" or "thrown down" occurs 29 times in LDS scripture, according to an lds.org search. The context is usually in terms of throwing down the altars of false or rival gods. One way to read this might verse, esp. in light of God's word being mentioned, is in terms of humbling oneself, or allowing oneself to be humbled "because of the word" (Alma 32:14), as opposed to being forced to be humble. Also, the typical "thrown down" context of false altars seems a rich allusion to the marriage altar in the temple where couples enter into a new and everlasting covenant with God.

Unanswered questions[edit]

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Prompts for life application[edit]

This section is for prompts that suggest ways in which a passage can influence a person's life. Prompts may be appropriate either for private self reflection or for a class discussion. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:1. Does the "as also" of verse 1 suggest that Joseph only inquired concerning Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and that the Lord is including, for His own purposes, some information on Moses, David, and Solomon? If so, what is the significance of this? If not, why does the Lord break down the list into two groups, split by the "as also"?
  • D&C 132:2. Why would the Lord begin his answer—even before He announces that He is going to answer—with the phrase "Behold, and lo, I am the Lord thy God"?
  • D&C 132:4-5. Verses 4-5 seem, perhaps, to use "covenant" and "law" interchangeably. Is this a good reading? Is there any way to read them as separate or distinct here? What would it mean to "abide" either the covenant or the law? Is it significant that verse 5 makes law a question of receiving a blessing, while no such connection is made with the covenant? Might one read "conditions" as making a difference between covenant and law?
  • D&C 132:6. In verse 6, both "law" and "covenant" are used, but perhaps in a way that is somewhat different from the preceding verses. Are they being used interchangeably here? Might one read the grammar here as suggesting that the law pertains to the new and everlasting covenant? If verse 5 speaks of laws being instituted, is it significant here that the covenant "was instituted"? Could there be several sense of the word "covenant" at play here and elsewhere?
  • D&C 132:7. Verse 7 also speaks of both "law" and "covenants." Here, however, it is quite clear that there is some kind of difference between them, since "covenants" are to be made, entered into, and sealed, in order to fulfill "the conditions of this law." What kind of distinction seems to be implicit here, then, between law and covenant? Can the distinction implied here be read back into the preceding four verses (3-6)? Does the list offered here ("covenants, contracts, bonds, etc.") help one think about the nature of covenant over against law? How are law and covenant related through the idea (or ordinance) of sealing?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




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D&C 132:16-20

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Summary[edit]

This heading should be very brief. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Discussion[edit]

This section is for detailed discussion such as the meaning of a symbol, how a doctrinal point is developed throughout a passage, or insights that can be further developed in the future. Contributions may range from polished paragraphs down to a single bullet point. The focus, however, should always be on understanding the scriptural text consistent with LDS doctrine. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19: Seal. Note the use of the word "seal" in verse 19. Through the sealing ordinances of the temple, exaltation is sealed upon our heads. This is brought to complete fulfillment after individuals have proved faithful, and had their calling and election sealed upon their heads by the power of the holy priesthood. "The more sure word of prophecy means a man's knowing that he is sealed up unto eternal life, by revelation and the spirit of prophecy, through the power of the Holy Priesthood" (D&C 131:5).
A "fullness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever" will be the glory given to those who are exalted. This glory is previously referenced as "my [God's] glory." Since God's glory is to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of his children (Moses 1:39), it follows that the exalted who become gods and receive God's glory will be involved in bringing to pass the immortality and eternal life of their children, and will have the same relationship with their children that our Heavenly Father has with us.

Unanswered questions[edit]

This section is for questions along the lines of "I still don't understand ..." Please do not be shy. The point of these questions is to identify things that still need to be addressed on this page. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for life application[edit]

This section is for prompts that suggest ways in which a passage can influence a person's life. Prompts may be appropriate either for private self reflection or for a class discussion. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19. What does it mean to "pass by the angels" to achieve exaltation?
  • D&C 132:19. How is exaltation "sealed upon [our] heads"?
  • D&C 132:19. How is the "continuation of the seeds" an eternal glory?
  • D&C 132:19. What does it mean that the sealing occurs "by him who is anointed, unto who I have appointed this power and the keys of the priesthood..."? Besides the Holy Spirit of promise, does this mean that a priesthood holder must seal the calling and election of the couple? If so, is this the Second Anointing or is that a separate ordinance?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19-20. See a Joseph Fielding Smith quotation on "from everlasting to everlasting" (v 20) and a quote from Brigham Young on the temple related to verse 19 here.

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




Previous page: Verses 132:1-14                      Next page: Verses 132:28-39

D&C 132:21-25

Home > Doctrine & Covenants > Section 132 > Verses 132:15-27
Previous page: Verses 132:1-14                      Next page: Verses 132:28-39


This page would ideally always be under construction. You are invited to contribute.


Summary[edit]

This heading should be very brief. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Discussion[edit]

This section is for detailed discussion such as the meaning of a symbol, how a doctrinal point is developed throughout a passage, or insights that can be further developed in the future. Contributions may range from polished paragraphs down to a single bullet point. The focus, however, should always be on understanding the scriptural text consistent with LDS doctrine. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19: Seal. Note the use of the word "seal" in verse 19. Through the sealing ordinances of the temple, exaltation is sealed upon our heads. This is brought to complete fulfillment after individuals have proved faithful, and had their calling and election sealed upon their heads by the power of the holy priesthood. "The more sure word of prophecy means a man's knowing that he is sealed up unto eternal life, by revelation and the spirit of prophecy, through the power of the Holy Priesthood" (D&C 131:5).
A "fullness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever" will be the glory given to those who are exalted. This glory is previously referenced as "my [God's] glory." Since God's glory is to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of his children (Moses 1:39), it follows that the exalted who become gods and receive God's glory will be involved in bringing to pass the immortality and eternal life of their children, and will have the same relationship with their children that our Heavenly Father has with us.

Unanswered questions[edit]

This section is for questions along the lines of "I still don't understand ..." Please do not be shy. The point of these questions is to identify things that still need to be addressed on this page. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for life application[edit]

This section is for prompts that suggest ways in which a passage can influence a person's life. Prompts may be appropriate either for private self reflection or for a class discussion. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19. What does it mean to "pass by the angels" to achieve exaltation?
  • D&C 132:19. How is exaltation "sealed upon [our] heads"?
  • D&C 132:19. How is the "continuation of the seeds" an eternal glory?
  • D&C 132:19. What does it mean that the sealing occurs "by him who is anointed, unto who I have appointed this power and the keys of the priesthood..."? Besides the Holy Spirit of promise, does this mean that a priesthood holder must seal the calling and election of the couple? If so, is this the Second Anointing or is that a separate ordinance?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19-20. See a Joseph Fielding Smith quotation on "from everlasting to everlasting" (v 20) and a quote from Brigham Young on the temple related to verse 19 here.

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




Previous page: Verses 132:1-14                      Next page: Verses 132:28-39

D&C 132:26-30

Home > Doctrine & Covenants > Section 132 > Verses 132:15-27
Previous page: Verses 132:1-14                      Next page: Verses 132:28-39


This page would ideally always be under construction. You are invited to contribute.


Summary[edit]

This heading should be very brief. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Discussion[edit]

This section is for detailed discussion such as the meaning of a symbol, how a doctrinal point is developed throughout a passage, or insights that can be further developed in the future. Contributions may range from polished paragraphs down to a single bullet point. The focus, however, should always be on understanding the scriptural text consistent with LDS doctrine. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19: Seal. Note the use of the word "seal" in verse 19. Through the sealing ordinances of the temple, exaltation is sealed upon our heads. This is brought to complete fulfillment after individuals have proved faithful, and had their calling and election sealed upon their heads by the power of the holy priesthood. "The more sure word of prophecy means a man's knowing that he is sealed up unto eternal life, by revelation and the spirit of prophecy, through the power of the Holy Priesthood" (D&C 131:5).
A "fullness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever" will be the glory given to those who are exalted. This glory is previously referenced as "my [God's] glory." Since God's glory is to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of his children (Moses 1:39), it follows that the exalted who become gods and receive God's glory will be involved in bringing to pass the immortality and eternal life of their children, and will have the same relationship with their children that our Heavenly Father has with us.

Unanswered questions[edit]

This section is for questions along the lines of "I still don't understand ..." Please do not be shy. The point of these questions is to identify things that still need to be addressed on this page. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for life application[edit]

This section is for prompts that suggest ways in which a passage can influence a person's life. Prompts may be appropriate either for private self reflection or for a class discussion. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19. What does it mean to "pass by the angels" to achieve exaltation?
  • D&C 132:19. How is exaltation "sealed upon [our] heads"?
  • D&C 132:19. How is the "continuation of the seeds" an eternal glory?
  • D&C 132:19. What does it mean that the sealing occurs "by him who is anointed, unto who I have appointed this power and the keys of the priesthood..."? Besides the Holy Spirit of promise, does this mean that a priesthood holder must seal the calling and election of the couple? If so, is this the Second Anointing or is that a separate ordinance?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:19-20. See a Joseph Fielding Smith quotation on "from everlasting to everlasting" (v 20) and a quote from Brigham Young on the temple related to verse 19 here.

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




Previous page: Verses 132:1-14                      Next page: Verses 132:28-39

D&C 132:31-35

Home > Doctrine & Covenants > Section 132 > Verses 132:28-39
Previous page: Verses 132:15-27                      Next page: Verses 132:40-50


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Summary[edit]

This heading should be very brief. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Discussion[edit]

This section is for detailed discussion such as the meaning of a symbol, how a doctrinal point is developed throughout a passage, or insights that can be further developed in the future. Contributions may range from polished paragraphs down to a single bullet point. The focus, however, should always be on understanding the scriptural text consistent with LDS doctrine. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:37-39. We know many ancient prophets had wives and concubines. This revelation mentions the 2 tiers of marriage and suggests how that can happen. Several times in the section, the Lord says wives are "given" to husbands. Verse 41 informs us that worthy wives, with a special "holy anointing," may righteously be with another man. In the case when a man and a woman are married eternally but are not "given" to each other, it makes sense that each is participating in a concubine type marriage.

Unanswered questions[edit]

This section is for questions along the lines of "I still don't understand ..." Please do not be shy. The point of these questions is to identify things that still need to be addressed on this page. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for life application[edit]

This section is for prompts that suggest ways in which a passage can influence a person's life. Prompts may be appropriate either for private self reflection or for a class discussion. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Prompts for further study[edit]

This section is for prompts that invite us to think about a passage more deeply or in a new way. These are not necessarily questions that beg for answers, but rather prompts along the lines of "Have you ever thought about ..." Prompts are most helpful when they are developed individually, thoughtfully, and with enough background information to clearly indicate a particular direction for further study or thought. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

  • D&C 132:37. What is the difference between a wife and a concubine?
  • D&C 132:38. The Lord indicates that righteous men have taken plural wives "from the beginning of creation"--does that mean that Adam, who was at the "beginning of creation," had more than one wife?

Resources[edit]

This section is for listing links and print resources, including those that are also cited elsewhere on this page. A short comment about the particular strengths of a resource can be helpful. Click the link above and to the right to edit or add content to this heading. →

Notes[edit]

Footnotes are not required but are encouraged for factual assertions that average readers cannot easily evaluate for themselves (such as the date of King Solomon’s death or the nuanced definition of a Greek word). In contrast, insights rarely benefit from footnoting, and the focus of this page should always remain on the scriptures themselves rather than what someone has said about them. Links are actively encouraged on all sections of this page, and links to authoritative sources (such as Strong's Bible Concordance or the Joseph Smith Papers) are preferable to footnotes.




Previous page: Verses 132:15-27                      Next page: Verses 132:40-50

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